Can anyone point me in the right direction of some resources where I can learn how to do that? I can imagine a kick being quite easy, but I’ve heard sounds from drum machines I don’t fully understand how to synthesize, like a snare, or that clunk of a triangle sound.
Drum synthesis is generally fun and easy, as long as you’re not expecting super realistic results. You can get pretty far playing around with a single oscillator w/ pitch envelope, white noise and/or 2-operator FM.
In terms of resources, a good place to start would be Sound on Sound’s Synth Secrets. If you’re comfortable reading DSP code, you can glean a lot from Mutable Instruments’ open-source code, specifically the drum models in the Plaits module.
Tons of good stuff in that series of articles! Like this: Synthesizing Cowbells & Claves
Also for getting something going quickly, giving a bandpass filter a high resonance and pinging it with a short impulse will get you started with basic kick and tom sounds.